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Salvation Ark

The Prophet Mohamad (pbuh&hp) and his Progeny are the salvation for the world

Alagd Althameen

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{jacomment off}Divine Oneness (at-Tawhīd)


The Proof that Allah Created the World

Our Lord is Allah.

He created us. The One that has created everything is its Lord.1


I was nothing and I became something. I didn't have ability and I gained ability. I did not have intellect but I gained intellect. One can witness things coming into existence but then afterwards, it ceases to exist. One sees a boy develop and learn things. Then he becomes a suckling, then a baby, then a child, then a young boy, then a mature being, then a young man, then an adult, and then an old man. Then one sees in a direction that a strong wind blows and then afterwards, it is not. Afterwards, it will blow again. The planets rise and fall. The clouds compact and dissipate; similarly, the rain, plants, and various fruits. All of this demonstrates in-time creation (al-hudūth).


If something was existent (muhdath), then it is necessary that there be One that caused it to exist (muhdith); because there are certain associations in corporeality and then divisions of objects and images. Look at the heavens, earth, fruits, trees, wells, stones, rivers, females, males, the living, the dead, the collective, and the dispersed. Look at the necessary consequences of actions. Then, they share in the nature of consequences. Consequently, it divides and parts between its desire, abundance, life, power, dryness, moisture, foods that we like and hate, various fragrances, heat, cold, the coming annihilation, opposite colors at the same time, the death that ceases provision, and hope.

We know that it is necessary that there be differences to differentiate from. These occurrences of in-time creation are witnessed. It changes from another. These occurrences cannot transpire by themselves. Because if a thing happens, it demands that whatever brought it about exists before it and outside of it. Similarly, an image cannot produce itself, and there are no disputations amongst itself regarding its preparation. One cannot overcome that by anything from the statements of the ignoramuses. They say that everything comes from Nature, a body, orbit, a star, a cause, an intellect, a spirit, a soul, or other than that. Consequently, these would be the kinds of affirmations without fail: One who brings into existence or onewho does not bring into existence. The one who brings into existence is, without fail, pre-existent or existent. It is not possible that a First Cause be brought into existence or that it is nonexistent. Consequently, it is necessary, to the knowledgeable one that He should be eternal and completely independent from that which was caused first.

It is not possible that the First Cause be existent because it is without fail that it either brings itself into existence or it is brought into existence by a different being. If it brought itself into existence, its effect [i.e. its created-ness] is a result of another cause of its like. Our knowledge of differences of the world could prove the invalidity of the statement that the First Cause be the exact same one that brought itself into being or that there be similar First Causes.
It is not possible that there be another First Cause because the First Cause would no longer be the First Cause. This is because at the moment that this takes place, this would bring about a sharing of the world, which causes a need. This will, in turn, cause a vicious circle (duwr al-kalām)2 from the First Cause that will not be understood or enclosed (yanhaŝir).
The conclusion must be based on certainty and determinative judgment that it [i.e. the world] is existent and fashioned. This is a result of the Chief Doer. He is the Ever-Living (al-Hayyu), the Self-Existent (al-Qayyūm).



 

 

Concerning Allah, the Exalted being Omnipotent

Indeed, He is Omnipotent because the existence of these creative acts is evident in the world, and these creative acts cannot exist except by means of power. It exists by the will of the Exalted. The verse says: {Verily whenever He desires a matter, He simply says to it “Be!” and it becomes} (Q. 36:82).3


 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

Concerning Allah, the Exalted being Omniscient

Indeed, He is Omniscient.4 An evidence of that is that one can witness creation as the expression of His wisdom and the uniqueness of His workmanship. Verily, in [creation] are rules and sequence. It being figured out by the intelligent person falls short. All of that is not sound except by means of an intelligent person. It is similar to a completely cohesive book. It cannot be sound except by means of an intelligent person [authoring it]. He, the Exalted, is not qualified by the known without that which is known. Then it is obligatory that One knows all of the known things. Upon everything is the manifestation that demonstrates it being known about.


He, Glorified be He, knows what the night hides and what the day illuminates. He knows the number of rain drops and the slightest speck of the ocean. He knows the secrets that are between two people; whether one hides it or whether it doesn‟t even exits from between the two lips. {There is no intimate conversation amongst three except that He is the fourth of them. Nor are there five except that He is the sixth of them. No less than that or no more except that He is with them wherever they are} (Q: 58:7). By His knowledge, they do not shut Him out, nor do they detach themselves from Him. He is another person to them.
Concerning Allah, the Exalted being Ever-Living


 


 

Is our Lord Ever-Living or not?


Indeed He is Ever-Living.5 Because if He was not Ever-Living He could not be Omnipotent nor Omniscient. Consequently, a dead or inanimate being could not do any action and could not originate creation.


 


 

Concerning Allah, the Exalted being Pre-Existent



He is Ever-Present (mawjūd) not the first of the existents because if His existence was first, he would be amongst the in-time creations.6 If he was amongst the in-time creations, then He wouldn‟t be necessary to in-time creation, in that He wouldn‟t be maintaining it. That is impossible because He is Pre-Existent, Omnipotent, Ever-Living, and Omniscient. He is not prone to error or nonexistence. It is simply that concerning a state from the states.


Consequently, if that wasn‟t the case, it would prevent there being a Doer of an action and prevent the idea that One possesses the attributes of perfection. This would be a defect. It is established that the Exalted is Pre-Existent. There is no truer statement than that.


 


 

 

Concerning Allah, the Exalted Hearing and Seeing

Indeed; because He is All-Living, as was established earlier. He is not afflicted by any defects because defects are only possible for bodies (al-ijsām).7 He, the Exalted, is not a body because a body is in-time creation, as was established earlier as well as the proof that He, the Exalted, is the Pre-Existent.8


 

 

 


 

Concerning Allah, the Exalted, Not Resembling Anything


Our Lord is something unlike anything else. Things comprise of quintessence, accidents,9 or bodies. It is not possible that He is quintessence or an accident because those two things are not alive nor do they have power in and of themselves. He, the Exalted, is Ever-Living and Omnipotent. These two things [i.e. quintessence and accidents] are in-time creations and He is Pre-Existent. It’s not possible that He is a body because we have already established that He is the Creator of bodies. Something cannot create its like. A body produces something that is already fashioned. It divides combines, stops, and moves. It also has directions and exists in passing time. All of that is witnessed in in-time creation. It is already established that He, the Exalted, is Pre-Existent. It is not possible that He is in-time creation. {He is unlike anything and He is the All-Hearing, All-Seeing} (Q. 42:11).


If He is not quintessence, or a body, or accident, He cannot be described in any way: whether it be colour, place, division, a face, sides, and hands. He does not retrogress afterwards, progress beforehand, split into parts, nor combine into a whole. He is not in the Earth or the Heavens. He is not incarnate in anything originally. He is not confined above or below. He has no right or left. He has no front or behind. It is not possible for Him to arrive or go anywhere. He does not descend or ascend. He was before the creation of the world without a place, and He will be after the annihilation of the world without a place. He is the Creator of place without being in need of place. He is the Creator of time without being bound in time. He is not of light or darkness. Consequently, all of that would be contradictory to His Pre-Existence.10


On the account of that, we say: It is not permissible for one to say, “He is tall, not short, not broad, not deep, not ugly, and not beautiful.” One cannot say, “He is veiled. He grieves. He ponders. He is anxious. He makes up His mind. He is anguished. He is bewildered. He strongly desires. He is shy.” This is because all of this is evident from that which is existent after nonexistence. This is incompatible with what

 

 


 

Concerning the Verses of Description


It is mentioned in the Qur‟ān: {His Hands are outstretched} (Q. 5:64). [It also mentions] Him having a side, eyes, a soul, a face, and hands, as the verse says: {…from the work of our Hands?} (Q. 36:71). “His Hands” means “His beneficence.”11 “Hand” also refers to His power. Also, “His Hands” denotes power and strength. “Side” in the Exalted‟s statement: {O, how great is my regret that I neglected the Side of Allah…) (Q. 39:56) means “obedience.”12 “Soul” in the Exalted‟s statement: {You know what is in my soul and I don‟t know what is in Your Soul…} (Q. 5:116) means the following: “You know my secrets and innermost thoughts and I don‟t know Your secrets and innermost thoughts.” His “Face” means “His Essence” and “His Self.” Additionally, the Exalted states: {There is the Face of Allah} (Q. 2:115); that is, any direction you face is to Him. Regarding what is mentioned concerning His “Eye” or “Eyes”,13 the intended meaning is protection, watchfulness, and knowledge. Also, the Exalted states: {He is established (istawā`u) on the Throne} (Q. 7:54). The term “established” denotes “seizure by means of power and authority.” He is unlike anything and He does not resemble anything dead or living.

 

 


 

Concerning Allah, the Exalted Being Independent

Verily, He is Independent. He is not prone to error or nonexistence. It is not possible for Him to be in need in any state because need is not possible except for one who gains benefit or detriment, as well as pleasure and pain. This matter is not possible except for one who has desire and disgust.


Those two things are not possible except for a body. A body is facilitated by means of attaining what it desires, and it takes recourse in it. It is nourished and it increases by what it takes. It is distressed by what is kept away from it and is damaged by it. It is diminished by having something taken from it. It is already established the Exalted is not a body. Moreover, He is the Creator of bodies. How can He create something that resembles His Essence? How can a body share in any of His attributes? That is not possible.


 


 


Concerning Allah Not Being Seen

This is an invalid statement due to the fundamentals of vision. If one could see in a place then that proves that the [object of vision] is in-time creation because that which is limited and encompassed in space is in-time creation.


If it is then said that He can be seen in a different realm (makān). This is not conceivable. Furthermore, regarding the negation of the Vision (ar-Ru`yah), the Exalted says: {Vision does not reach Him; rather, He reaches all vision} (Q. 6:103). This negates the general negation of all of the opponents whether it [i.e. the Vision] is in this world or the afterlife.14


Allah, the Exalted, also said to Moses, when the latter inquired about the Vision: {You will never

 

 


 


Concerning Allah, the Exalted Being One

Indeed. He is One in His majesty and not two. He exclusively possesses the attributes of perfection. Consequently, if there was another with him, then they will have to share in the attributes of perfection that only one is qualified to have. If that was the case, then they would be equal. If that was the case, then it would be necessary for the two of them to fight and dispute. The two of them would be in constant contradiction and opposition. If we take that into consideration, it would either permit the consolidation of actions amongst the two opponents, or the First One‟s will would incapacitate the other‟s will. All of that is impossible.


The Exalted is the Possessor of Majesty. This is demonstrated by His words: {If there were more than one god besides Allah, they would be ruined} (Q. 21:22), as well as His statement: {Have they have given Allah partners who created similar to His creation so that the creation seemed like them? Say: “Allah is the Creator of everything. He is the One, the Overwhelming.”} (Q. 13:16). It is clear that this creation was witnessed by one God and a second god was not there to witness. This is obvious. This world is a proof that there is one God. This is what was conveyed by the Messengers and the clear path. This is proven by the statements of the Mighty, Majestic: {So know that there is no god but Allah} (Q. 47:19), {Allah bears witness that there is no god but He; as well as the angels and those entrusted with knowledge. He establishes with justice.} (Q. 3:17), {Your God is One} (Q. 2:163), and {Say: He is Allah, the One} (Q. 112:1).15 Proponents of the Vision argue that this negation is limited to this life only, and Moses and others will see Allah in the next life. However, the particle “lan” in the verse not only indicates emphasis but also indicates a future negation. This means that at no time, now or in the future, will Moses see Allah. If a chief prophet like Moses will not have this honour, what of the rest of us?

 

 


 

Divine Justice (al-Adl)

Concerning Allah, the Exalted, being All-Just and All-Wise


Indeed. This is because He does not commit an obscenity (al-qabīh)16 and does not infringe by obligating one in regards to judiciousness. All of His actions are good. We say: He does not commit any obscenities;17 rather He points out the ignorance of the obscene. It is necessary that He be repelled from doing it if He knows that it is obscene. He knows what is the most obscene of the obscene things; because it is from amongst the known things. He knows all, as we have already mentioned. He is independent from doing it, as we have already mentioned also. He knows what is in futility and everything that has these qualities. So, He does not do the obscene.


Have you not considered the one who owns thousands of thousands pounds of gold? He will not steal counterfeit money, for he knows how obscene stealing is, he knows that he is too rich to steal, and he knows that he doesn‟t need it. Similarly, if it is said to the intellect: If someone tells the truth about giving you a dirham and if someone lies to you about giving you a dirham, you will not choose the lie over the truth. This is the only way and the path of continuity. There is no defect in that except as we mentioned.


 

 

 


 

Concerning the Actions of the Slave Being From Them Only


The only ones who would say something like that are the people of deviation and obstinacy. How could He command one to do something that he had already created for them not to do and punish them for it? Likewise, how could He prohibit them from an action that He had already created for them to do and carry out judgment? Consequently, it is imperative that humans follow a ruling. One‟s action is either laudable, praiseworthy, calumny, ridicule, meritorious, or recompense. How can that be the case for the exaltedness of the Exalted? It takes place based upon an objective and motive, and it does not take place based upon dislike and aversion to one way.


Allah, the Exalted, could increase the actions of the slave to an extent. He says: {…you earn…}, {…they plot…}, {…they do…}, {…they form…}, {…they disbelieve…}, and {…you produce falsehood…}. This is mentioned in the Qur‟ān in many places.18 Nevertheless, the Exalted enjoins them to make a choice. He prohibits and warns. This enables them to act upon two opposites, have two paths placed in front of them, be placed in two states, and they are not prevented from committing acts of disobedience by Predestination. They are not coerced into acts of obedience by force. If He willed to do that, it would be as what the Mighty and Majestic says: {If your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed; all of them…} (Q. 10:99). The act of willing denotes coercion, and not willing denotes choice. Consequently, if they were forced, they will not be responsible and this will invalidate the whole purpose of sending the Messengers.

 


 

Concerning Allah Not Punishing Anyone Except for His Own Sin

He does not punish anyone except for his own sin because if one is penalized while not sinning, this would be injustice. Injustice is obscene and Allah does not commit any obscenities. The Exalted says: {No bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another} (Q. 6:164).19

 

 


 

 


Concerning Allah Not Decreeing Except in Truth

Certainly not! He does not decree20 with disbelief and disobedience; insomuch that it is contradictory to wisdom and appropriateness. It is as the Exalted says: {Allah decrees in truth} (Q. 40:20). Thus, the statement does not permit that one be disobedient by the judgment of Allah, the Exalted, and His decree by means of creation and command. This is invalid and the consensus of the Muslims hold to the belief that contentment with disobedience is not permissible. The also concur that contentment with the decree of Allah is obligatory. This wouldn‟t be consistent except by the statement that disobedience is not from the decree of Allah. This is the intent of He creating it, and not commanding it.


Regarding He being completely cognizant of it, He is completely cognizant of it. This is because it is amongst the known principles. However, His knowledge of it does not necessitate that the slave does it. [The slave] is not compelled to do anything, as was mentioned earlier.

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 


Concerning Allah Not Burdening One Beyond One's Capacity

No. He does not burden one except what one can endure. This is because to burden someone beyond their capacity is obscene and the Exalted does not commit any obscenities. The Exalted says: {Allah does not burden a soul except what it can bear} (Q. 2:286). To “bear” means “to stipulate capacity”. He says: {…except by what He has given it} (Q. 65:7).21

 

 


 

Concerning Allah Not Committing Any Obscenities

He does not desire anything from anyone. He does not desire injustice, He is not pleased with disbelief, nor does He love disobedience because all of that refers to the desire of the obscene. The desire ofthe obscene is obscene. The Exalted does not commit the obscene.


Do you not notice that we reported justice (al-adālat) in an apparent report? This is because, according to the intellect. if one desires fornication and injustice, this negates justice and diminishes one‟s rank. There is no defect in that except that one approaches obscenity. By that, one desires obscenity.The Exalted says: {Allah does not love disobedience} (Q. 2:205), {He is not pleased with disbelief for His slaves} (Q. 39:7), and {Allah does not desire injustice for His slaves} (Q. 40:31).22

 

 



Concerning Allah Not Doing What He Declares as Evil

 

Certainty not! He does not act except in righteousness. He does not test them unless He calls them to success; whether one meets disaster or blessing. This is because the Exalted does not act except in virtue and wisdom, as we mentioned earlier. If they are afflicted, tried, and tested by that which exceeds what they were bestowed with; it justifies the statements of the opponents. By that, the idea of Him bringing something frivolous into existence is expelled. This is what the Exalted indicates by His statement: {Do they not see that they are tested each year once or twice but then, they do not repent nor do they remember?} (Q. 9:126). It necessitates that there‟s a compensatory fulfillment a hundredfold. By that, the idea of Him bringing injustice into existence is expelled. This is mentioned many times in the Sunnah 23and [it is] the intended goal, in brief.

 

 


 

Notes:

1 The textual proofs for Allah‟s creating the universe are numerous. For the sake of brevity we confine ourselves to the following: {Allah is the Creator of everything} (Q. 39:62), {All Praise is due to Allah who created the heavens and earth and made the darkness and light} (Q. 6:1), and {He is the One who begins creation and then renews it} (Q. 30:27).

2 In the language of the philosophers and theologians, this is also known as tasalsal which implies an unending chain of events that continues ad infinitum. Such concept denotes an impossibility.


3 Allah‟s omnipotence is also proven by the verse: {Verily He has power over all things} (Q. 2:120).


4 Allah‟s omniscience is textually proven by the verses: {Verily Allah knows everything} (Q. 2:231), {“You are the Knower of the unseen!”} (Q. 5:109), {…Knower of the unseen and seen} (Q. 59:22).


5 The textual proof of Allah being Ever-Living is {And place your trust in the Ever-Living who will never die} (Q. 40:65).

6 The textual proof of His Pre-Existence is the verse: {He is the First} (Q. 57:3).


7 “Body”: It is known from that which is known; for example, humans, trees, stones, water, and wind.


8 The textual proof of His Seeing and Hearing is {Verily We are with both of you [i.e. Aaron and Moses] Haring and Seeing} (Q. 20:46) and {Verily, He is All-Hearing, All-Seeing} (Q. 17:1).


9 “Accident”: It is the characterization of the body in shapes, colors, groupings, and divisions. It is what characterizes by heat and cold, humidity and dryness, stillness and movement, significance and whispering of the soul, anxieties and anguish, joy and sadness, pleasure and anger, mercy and compassion, lust and antipathy, desire and hatred, and determination. It is like man‟s knowledge, life, ability, reputation, vision, ignorance, death, incapacity, as well as the sweetness and bitterness present in foods.


10 In their attempt to uphold both the corporeality of Allah and His transcendence, some have stated: “Allah is a body unlike other bodies.” This statement is incorrect because this is contradictory and unknown in the language. Just as it would be incorrect to say that Allah is a body unlike other bodies, it would be incorrect to say that someone is a man unlike other men, seeking to differentiate one from the other in essence. That is, the designation of “man” in the both instances denotes that both share the same essence. is in line with the attributes of perfection, greatness, and majesty.


11 This interpretation is also narrated in Tafsīr Tabari and Tafsīr Ar-Razi. Such interpretation is known in the language. It is as the Arab poet says:


The two, white hands of the clement (muhallim) should prevent you from withholding and injustice.
12 “Side” being a metaphor of “obedience” is known in the language. This interpretation appears in Tafsīr al-Bayďawi and Tafsīr ath-Tha’labi.


13 This refers to the verse: {It [i.e. the Ark of Noah] floats under our Eyes} (Q. 54:14)
14 As evidence for the Vision, the Generality cites numerous textual references; principal of which is the verse: {Faces on that day will be looking to [or “at”] their Lord} (Q. 75:22-23). Opponents of this view point out that the word for “looking” (nażara) means “anticipating” (intażar), and the verses of the negation of the Vision are more decisive than the verses that seemingly support it. Regarding the hadīths that seemingly support the Vision, if they are authentic, they are meant to be understood in a way as to avoid the concept that Allah is a body. For example, the hadīth ((You will see Allah like you see the moon)) cannot be taken literally; otherwise Allah will be likened to the moon. Consequently, this contradicts the very clear verse: {He is unlike anything and He is the All-Hearing, All-Seeing} (Q. 42:11). Rather the “seeing” in these narrations refer to a knowledge that is clear and perceptive and thus, is compared to seeing in the literal sense.


see Me (lan tara`ani)} (Q. 7:143).15 Moses, peace be upon him, did not inquire about the Vision for himself; rather, he inquired on behalf of his people. Similarly, Allah relates the incident of his people by saying: {Verily, they asked Moses for something greater than that! They said: “Show us Allah clearly!” We seized them with thunder.} (Q. 4:153). If he asked on his own behalf, he would have been seized by thunder. He never fell victim to sin; instead, their question about the Vision was without permission. He said to his Lord: {Will we be destroyed by the action of the foolish amongst us?} (Q. 7:155).

16 In the language of the theologians, a qabīh refers to something that cannot exist because its existence contradicts an attribute of Allah.


17 Some textual proofs include the following verses: {Allah does not commit injustice; even an atoms weight…} (Q. 4:40), {The decree will not be changed for Me. I will never be unjust to the slaves} (Q. 50:29), {All of that is evil; according to your Lord, it is hated} (Q. 17:38), and {Never will I allow the deeds of the doer to be in vain} (Q. 3:195).
18 The proof that the actions of the slave are from the slave can be found in the Qur‟ān, Sunnah, and statements of the salaf: Regarding the proofs from the Qur‟ān: {Whoever follows the footsteps of Satan…He enjoins immorality and sins} (Q. 24:21); {And when they commit immorality, they say: “We found our forefathers doing it and Allah ordered us to do it.” Say: “Verily, Allah does not order immorality. Do you say about Allah that which you not know thereof?”} (Q. 7:28); {Whatever good comes to you is from Allah. Whatever bad comes to you is from yourself} (Q 4:79).


Regarding the proofs from the Sunnah: Imam Muslim related a hadīth qudsi where Allah says: ((O my slaves, I have created all of you on the state of uprightness; however, it is Satan that comes to you to remove you from your religion. He commands you to disbelief and you disbelieve; disobedience and you disobey; and oppression and you oppress)). He also related in a long hadīth: ((Whenever you perform an action, Allah gives you your full due for it. Whoever finds good should praise Allah. Whoever finds contrary to that, the blame is on none but himself)). He also related that when the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, made his opening supplication for the prayer, he said: ((O Allah, all good is in your Hand (bi yadayk) and evil is not [ascribed] to You (ilayk))).


Regarding the proofs from the statements of the salaf: „Ali said: “It is not for Allah to do injustice to his slaves.” It is related that Abu Bakr said: “I say what my opinion is. If there is benefit, it is from Allah. If there is a mistake, then it is from me and Satan.” The same statement is recorded from „Umar and Ibn Mas‟ūd except with the addition, “…and Allah and His Messenger are free from it [i.e. my mistake].”

 

19 The proof that Allah does not punish one for another‟s sin can be found in the Qur‟ān, Sunnah, and statements of the salaf: Regarding the proofs from the Qur‟ān: {And there is naught for man except that for which he strives} (Q. 53:39), {What would Allah do with your punishment if you are appreciative and you believe?} (Q. 4:147), and {Every soul will be held responsible by what it earned} (Q. 74:38).


Regarding the proofs from the Sunnah: Imam Muslim related: ((The sin of fornication does not fall upon the son if his father sins. {No bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another} )). Imam Murshid Billah related: ((The children of the idolaters will be in Paradise, and anyone who claims that they will be in Hellfire is a liar. This is because the Exalted says: {When the girl is buried alive will be asked for what sin was she killed} (Q. 81:8-9).)) It is also related that he, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, said about the children of the idolaters who died: ((They did not do any good to be amongst the people of Paradise; nor did they do any sins to be amongst he people of Hellfire. Rather, they will be the servants of the people of Paradise)).


Regarding proofs from the statements of the salaf: It is narrated that someone mentioned to A‟isha that Ibn „Umar related from the Prophet: ((Verily the dead are punished by the crying of the living)). She said: “The one that related that to you is not a liar but there is a mistake in what was heard. What‟s in the Qur‟ān should be sufficient for you: {No bearer of burdens will bear the burden of another}.”


20 “Decree” (qaďa) has three possible meanings: First, “to create” or “to complete” as in the Exalted‟s statement: {He completed them (qaďahunna) as seven heavens in two days} (41:12); that is, He completed their creation. Second, “to inform” or “to notify” as in the Exalted‟s statement: {We declared (qaďayna) to the Children of Israel in the Book: “You will cause corruption of the Earth twice…”} (Q. 17:4); that is, We informed them that they would do so. Third, “to make obligatory” as in the Exalted‟s statement: {Allah has decreed (qaďa) that you be obedient to your parents…} (Q. 17:23); that is, He has commanded you.


It is not possible that Allah decree disobedience or disbelief according to the first meaning because we already demonstrated that the slaves‟ actions are from the slaves. The second meaning would not be possible from a linguistic standpoint. The third meaning would not be possible because Allah does not make disobedience or disbelief obligatory. Rather, he makes the opposite obligatory.


21 This issue may seem obvious; however, this chapter serves as an additional proof that Allah does not burden His slave with disobedience or disbelief; both of which are burdens.


22 Opponents of this view cite the following verses to demonstrate that Allah wills the slave‟s disobedience: First, {And you do not will except that Allah wills} (Q. 76:30) However, the context of this verse makes its meaning clear. The previous verse says: {Verily, this is a reminder, so that he who wills may take a path to his Lord} (verse 29). {And you do not will} to take a path to your Lord {except that Allah wills} to reward you. Consequently, the following verse says: {He admits whom He wills to His mercy} (verse 31). Second, {And your Lord creates what He wills and He alone chooses. They didn‟t have a choice} (Q. 28:68). Some exegetes say that this “choice” refers to guidance. However, in Asbābul-Nuzūl, al-Wāhidi said that this verse was revealed as an answer to al-Walīd bin al-Mughīra. He and the other pagan Arabs asked why wasn‟t the Prophet a man from Makkah or Ta`if (see Q. 43:31). Allah revealed this verse as a response to them. Also, noteworthy is the past tense used {They didn‟t have a choice} and not the present tense, “They don‟t have a choice”. This lends credence to the view that it was addressing the ridicule of the pagans, {They didn‟t have a choice} to choose the Prophet and where he was from.


Third, {Allah created you and what you do [or “what you manufacture”]} (Q. 37:96); the argument being that Allah creates the actions of the disobedient. The verse, however, is part of Abraham‟s statement to the idolaters. The first part of the statement is {“Do you worship that which your hands carve…”} (verse 95). He completes the statement with the aforementioned verse: {“…while Allah created you and what you do [or “what you manufacture”]} (verse 96). The implication is that they should worship Allah, the One who created them and the stones that they carve images from.


23 Some examples of Allah testing the believers, from the Sunnah include: Imam at-Tirmidhi narrated on the authority of Jābir: ((On the Day of Judgment, while viewing the rewards, the people of misfortune would desire to cut their skins with blades)). Imams Mālik, Murshid Billah, al-Bukhāri narrated on the authority of Abu Hurayra: ((The one whom Allah wants good for, He tries him)). Imam al-Bukhāri narrated: ((When the slave is sick or on a journey, Allah writes for him the reward of a good deed)).

 


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