Ghusl - method
I have a question regarding the mechanics of performing ghusl. From reading the various English translations of Zaydi texts on purification, it reads that ghusl requires intention, washing hands, private parts, then the rest of the parts as one would perform for wudu' although feet can be delayed until the end, then washing whole body from top of head, making sure water reaches everywhere. Is this correct? Also is it required to rub the whole body whilst pouring water over head as in the manner of the Malikis or is it enough just to pour the water?
Thank you for your question!
The manner of ghusl has been elucidated by Imam al-Haadi (as) in his Al-Ahkaam. He said:
Among the obligations for the one in the state of major ritual impurity is to wash the right hand. One is to pour out enough water until it is thoroughly cleansed. Then, one washes the left hand. One scoops the water with the right hand until one thoroughly cleans it [i.e. the left hand]. Then, one washes one’s private parts until it is clean. Afterwards, one strikes the earth with the hands and cleanses the private parts with the dust. One strikes the earth again and washes it with the dust that remains. Then, one performs the ritual ablution for the prayer.
One then pours water on the head three times, or if one has a small tin of water, one pours it on the head until it is clean and rubs the water into the scalp. Afterwards, one pours the water onto the right side of one’s body and then the left—rubbing each side with the hand until it is clean. Then, one completes the rest of the ritual ablution for the prayer. This is because one cannot complete the ritual ablution until the body is purified from ritual impurities.
It was related to me on the authority of my father from his father that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, used to wash from the state of major ritual impurity and then perform the ritual ablution. He washed his hands and then, private parts. He poured water on his left with his right hand and then washed his hand. He rinsed his mouth and nose and then washed his face. He washed his forearms three times. He then wiped his head, poured water onto his head and washed the rest of his body—rubbing his body with his hands. Then, he started with the place that he left off and washed his feet. Finally, he repeated the ritual ablution for the prayer.
As for rubbing in the ghusl, according to the madhhab, rubbing accompanies the pouring. In Al-Muntakhab, Imam al-Haadi (as) was asked
The imam responded by saying:
So, if a person in the state of major ritual impurity immerses himself in a well, sea or pond, but doesn’t rub the body with his hands and emerges, is he pure and can he pray?
I am of the opinion that the purification wash of the one in the state of major ritual impurity is not valid until and unless he rubs all his body. One must also penetrate through the hair of one’s body so that water gets through to the innermost portion of the hair.
InshaAlah, everything is clear. And Allah knows best!
It was related to me on the authority of my father from his father that Allah’s Messenger, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, used to (etc)
Does it systematicly imply that Imam Al Qaasim (as) reports from father to son to Imam 'Alii (as) ? Or it could be thought any type of sahih chain ?
As for the translation of Al-Ahkaam, that is ne of the several projects we are involved in. It is a very important text that is akin to the Muwatta of Imam Malik in its historical significance. It was a document that subsequent imams used to rule Yemen.
As for the chain of Imam al-Haadi (as), he relates ahadith from the authority of his father from his grandfather, Imam al-Qaasim ar-Rassi (as), who in turn related from his ancestors up until the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his Progeny. Imam al-Qaasim also related ahadith from other authorities. For example, Imam al-Haadi stated in Al-Ahkaam:
In our translation of Al-Ahkaam, we plan to provide the complete chains of narration, insha-Allah.
My father related to me on the authority of al-Qaasim bin Ibraahiim, uhbp, from Abu Bakr bin Abi Uwais from al-Hussein bin ‘Abdullah bin Ɖamiira from his father from his grandfather that ‘Ali bin Abi Taalib, may Allah be merciful to him, said:
Whoever does not recite Bismillah ar-Rahmaan ar-Rahiim aloud, his prayer is aborted.
Hope this helps! And Allah knows best!
Alhamdulillah, I'm so pleased to hear about this work. Is there any way I can help?