Imam ad-Daylami's tafsir of muhsinaat in 5:5

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1 month 2 days ago #1044 by Imam Rassi Society
Salam!

Would you be able to help me understand the argument raised by Imam Nasir al-Din Abu al-Fatah al-Daylami in Tafsir al-Burhan on 5:5?

I’m particularly trying to understand his point on women not being considered “محصنات” until they convert to Islam as he says it is impossible for احصان to be associated with كفر. It would help if you could tell me what exactly he means by احصان and how he defines محصنات so that his argument makes sense to me.

The tafsir of the ayah can be read here on page 207:

www.althaqaleen.com/UploadedBooks/البرها...للإمام%20الديلمي.pdf

Barakallahu feek!

wa alaykum as salaam!

Thanks for your question! As for the meaning of the holy verse by Imam Nasir ad-Daylami (as), he is saying that the term muhsinaat refers to those Jewish and Christian women who embrace Islam. This is because of: "...the impossibility of the word ihsaan to apply to disbelief."

The term ihsaan, as you know, has multiple meanings. One of the meanings is chaste/pure; of unblemished reputation. Another meaning is married. Another meaning is free; not a slave. Yet, another meaning of the word is Muslimah. This last meaning is what I think the imam is referring to because it is related that the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, said: ((The one who associates partners with Allah is not a muhsin)). This is an explicit statement that says that the term ihsaan in its purist and holistic sense cannot refer to a non-Muslim.

Also, our imams related that he said to Ka'b b. Maalik when the latter wanted to marry a Jewish woman ((She is not muhsina for you)). Judging from the apparent denotation of these reports, it is evident that ihsaan in the aforementioned verse refers to Muslimahs.

And Allah knows best!

IRS

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1 month 2 days ago #1045 by Imam Rassi Society
Salam!

Thank you for this again. My last two questions on this are:

1. Are there any narrations for the asbab al nuzul of 5:5 which state that it was revealed about Christians and Jews who embraced Islam?

2. Have any of our imams discussed the proof for Christians and Jews who only believe in one God as still being mushrikeen (i.e. those who reject the trinity or any other similar belief)?

Barakallahu feek!

Salaam!

Thank you for your questions! As for the asbaab an nuzuul of this verse referring to the Ahl al-Kitaab who embraced Islam, I found references in Usuul al-Ahkaam by Imam Ahmed b. Suleiman (as) and Sharh at-Tajreed of al-Mu'ayyad Billah (as). This asbaab an-nuzuul is also alluded to in the Tanwir Ibn Abbaas when it says that the women of Mecca used to boast to the women of Medina. As you know, the Muslim women of Mecca were converted from pagans and the women of Medina were converted from Ahl al-Kitaab. The Muslims weren't sure as to whether they could marry these newly converted Muslims from Medina. This verse was then said to be revealed to permit such.

As for your second question, there was an instance where Imam al-Qaasim ar-Rassi (as) got into a debate with a Unitarian Christian. The latter affirmed that he rejected the notion of the trinity but wanted to know why he is still counted as a mushrik in Islam. The imam asked him: "Do you believe that the Qur'an, the miracles and the secret realities that the Prophet informed the people of were from other than Allah?" The Christian said: "Of course." The imam then said: "You therefore attribute it to other than Allah?" The Christian said: "Yes." The imam said: "Well, if you were to claim that the heavens and the earth were from other than Allah, you would be considered a mushrik in your religion. Since you attribute the Qur'an and every wondrous thing the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him and his progeny, came with to other than Allah, you would be considered a mushrik in our religion." Or something to that effect. This account is recorded in his Reply to the Question of Two Men from Tabaristan.

The argument follows that shirk not only refers to associating partners to Allah in His Essence by worshiping someone or something else, but shirk is also attributing partners in Allah's Actions by declaring that someone else did something exclusive to Him, the Exalted. This is where many Muslims get confused. They believe that shirk only refers to associating partners in worship so they don't see Jews and Christians as mushriks.

And Allah knows best!

IRS

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